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The Main Components Defining Physical fitness

Each person has his or her own idea of what fitness is supposed to look like. For others, it means having a slim silhouette while for others it means having the perfect hourglass body or big muscles in the right places.
In the past, one’s fitness level was generally defined as their ability to meet the daily physical demands of life and perform daily activities without unnecessary fatigue. However, this definition was rendered insufficient by ever-changing lifestyles and an increase in leisure time. Physical fitness today is deemed as a measure of your body’s capacity to meet an emergency, resist any hypokinetic disease, be healthy, and function effectively in both leisure and work activities.
Physical fitness is made up of two connected concepts:
1)    Specific Fitness- task-oriented and dependent on the capacity to conduct specific elements of occupations or sports
2)    General Fitness- a state of well-being and overall health
In order to measure one’s overall fitness we need to consider the five components of physical fitness and for a typical person, workouts must be tailored to the five primary health-related components. The skill-related physical fitness components such as power, reaction time, coordination, balance, agility, and speed are taken into consideration when judging athletes’ physical fitness. These components can also be categorized into physiological and sports-related components of physical fitness.
 
Health-Related Components of Physical fitness
Physical fitness in relation to physical fitness is defined as an activity performed with the aim of improving well-being and overall health. The goal of these health-related components is rehabilitation from disease or disease prevention while developing an increased functional capacity for day-to-day tasks.
The health-related components of physical fitness are as described below:
1)    Muscle Strength
This is defined as the capacity of one’s muscles to lift weights. Performing strength or weight-training exercises every other day can increase your body’s muscle mass. Muscular strength can be measured by the maximum amount of strength of a muscle during exertion or while lifting. There are three categories of strength:
  • Strength Endurance- the capacity to express strength multiple times
  • Elastic Strength- the capacity to overcome resistance with fast contractions
  • Maximum Strength- the greatest possible strength within one maximum contraction
2)    Muscular Endurance
This is defined as the body’s capacity to conduct repeated exercises without getting fatigued. If someone can do additional repetitions of a specific strength training exercise then you would say he or she has optimum muscular endurance. This is the ability of a group or individual muscles to maintain repeated contractions for a longer period against resistance.
3)    Flexibility
This component of physical fitness checks one’s ability of the body’s joints to move within their full motion range. Your physical fitness level is determined by joint flexibility because if it is good then you could prevent any joint-related injuries. Suppleness, mobility, and flexibility all define the range of your limb movement around the joints. Each movement involves the use of two muscle groups. The antagonistic muscles oppose each movement determining the level of flexibility while the protagonist muscles cause the movement to occur.
4)    Endurance or Cardiovascular Fitness
Cardiovascular fitness helps to identify whether the lungs and heart are working in harmony as well as the body’s capacity to deliver nutrients and oxygen to the tissues while eliminating wastes. Cardiovascular endurance is also known as cardiorespiratory fitness or aerobic fitness. It determines your heart’s capacity to pump oxygen-rich blood for muscle functioning.
5)    Body Fat Composition
This is the fat to muscle ration of your body. More lean mass and less fat signals a fit and healthy body. In order to know what your fitness level is, you need to know your body composition, which relates directly to your general fitness level. Body composition considers your individual body type according to the fat to lean muscle mass ratio, frame size, weight, and height. Lean mass includes vital organs, tissues, bones, and muscles.
 
Skill-Related Physical fitness Components
1)    Speed- This defines one’s capacity to perform motor movements in the shortest period and with high speed. Speed is equal to the distance covered per time unit. Speed is an essential part of any sport also known as speed endurance, power/elastic strength, and maximum speed. it is influenced by an athlete’s technique, strength endurance, special strength, and mobility. Speed is involved in most athletic skills i.e. in basketball, soccer, or sprint running.
2)    Power- This component relates ability to rate of performing a specific task. It is considered a combination of speed and strength and can also be defined as the capacity to exert muscle force quickly.
3)    Coordination- This relates to one’s capacity to use his or her senses in harmony with body parts in order to conduct motor tasks accurately and smoothly.
4)    Balance- This is one’s capacity to control the body or sustain equilibrium while moving or stationary.
5)    Agility- This component relates to one’s capacity to change the entire body’s directions or position in space with accuracy and speed.
6)    Reaction Time- This relates to the time that elapses between muscle stimulation and the start of the reaction to this stimulus.
Physiological Components
1)    Bone Strength or Integrity- This is related to the density of bone mineral and it is connected to habitual physical activity
2)    Morphological Fitness- This Component relates to body composition factors like regional body fat distribution, body fat content, and body circumferences. Measures of morphological fitness are typically connected to components of metabolic fitness. Body composition as mentioned in health-related fitness is deemed a component of morphological fitness.
3)    Metabolic Fitness- This includes sub-components such as blood hormone levels, blood lipid levels, and blood sugar levels.
4)    Physiological Fitness- This component includes non-performance elements of physical fitness relating to biological systems affected by your habitual physical activity level.
Sports-Related Components
They are:
1)    Individual sport
2)    Team Sport
Physical fitness in relation to sport is aimed at maximizing recreational activity, athletic performance, prevention of injury, and enhancing one’s ability to work. It is related directly to sports and games performance.

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